Composting (Part 1)

In general

  • For a strong root system and to form flowers, the plants need phosphorus. For the quality of the fruits and the potassium resistance, the plants with green parts instead need a little more nitrogen.
  • Adding wrong fertilizers can result in a weaker root system, too fast growth, and less resistance to disease.
  • We do not fertilize without thinking. First of all, we check which substances are missing in the soil.
  • First of all, we exploit all the possibilities of prepared fertilizers in cases, only later, if necessary, do we use mineral fertilizers.
  • If the analyzes show a clear lack of one of the elements, we add the necessary mineral fertilizer.
  • If the plants show signs of lack of any element, we add it with foliar fertilizers – these act faster.
  • If the analyzes show an excess of one of the elements, we do not use it in fertilization for a few years.
  • For purchased fertilizers, follow the instructions on the packaging, we do not exceed the quantities indicated.
  • We are moderate in fertilization – too large a quantity damages plants, even the environment.
  • On the new garden site, we first plant the plants for green fertilization. The same applies to the new green area or to the location of new fruit trees.
  • Legumes almost do not need additional fertilization, bulb vegetables, and leafy vegetables are moderately demanding, while the most demanding are fruit vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, roots, and bulb vegetables.

Mineral fertilizers

  • They are water-soluble and artificial; they are found in liquid and hard form (dust, lumps).
  • We also find foliar fertilizers, which act faster, as the plants receive them where they need them.
  • The complexes contain a mixture of different nutrients, the simple ones just a nutrient.
  • Slowly they bind to the particles in the ground, so unnecessary fertilization causes the entry of the fertilizer into the underground water.

Organic fertilizers

  • It includes manure, compost, ash, pomace, plants for green fertilization …
  • These fertilizers release nutrients slowly and do not damage groundwater.
  • For the action of these fertilizers, it is important that the soil has air, both wet and alive.
  • Organic fertilizers purchased replace manure well, but they lack the part of permanent humus that harrows the earth. Therefore the organic fertilizers purchased must be combined with the plants for green fertilization.

Manure

  • Just let’s fertilize every three years because the nutrients are released slowly.
  • We bury it in the upper layer of the soil because it does not emit unpleasant odors and does not lose important nutrients.
  • We use manure that has rested for about six months, fresh manure instead only in the autumn period because it degrades during the winter.
  • When using fresh manure, we must be careful that it does not contain pests and weed seeds.
  • We avoid the simultaneous use of lime and manure because the lime eliminates some positive effects of manure.
  • Horse and cattle manure has a similar composition, that of pigs contains more potassium and nitrogen (and less calcium), while poultry, sheep, goats, and rabbits are rich in phosphorus and nitrogen.
  • It is good to know the agriculture on the farm from which we get manure.

The compote

  • It is the best way to fertilize – we use vegetables and kitchen waste in a useful way. It is useful after just a few months – take the ripe compote from the bottom.
  • The compote must be placed in the shade (or half-shade) and in such a way that during the precipitation superfluous water does not accumulate there.
  • The lower part must be open, but between the side tables, there must be enough space for ventilation.
  • We avoid places along the border with neighbors and those that are too close to the vegetable garden because it does not become a refuge for snails and grillotals.
  • On the bottom, we place a heap of branches to allow air to circulate. We continue with layers of elements that are not too thick: mixed waste, manure, cut grass, earth from the garden …
  • In order for it to degrade properly, the compote must have good air circulation and must be moist (if necessary water it), and access to earthworms must also be allowed.
  • On the compote, we lay cut grass, herbs, weed (seedless), manure, sawdust, leaves, straw, non-colored paper, kitchen waste (vegetables and fruit, bread, eggshells, tea bags …).
  • We do not place on the compost diseased or moldy parts of plants, non-decomposable waste, uncut branches, chemically treated fruit peels (citrus), weed with roots, wormwood (chases the earthworms), excrements of domestic animals and hens, remains of meat or bones, flowers from flower shops …

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